[NOTE: This is just a rough idea only. Please kindly contribute facts, suggestions, corrections etc in Burmese OR English.]
We urgently need an Umbrella Political organization for all the Muslims from Myanmar.
Bama Muslim Congress propelled the first batch of Muslims from Burma into power: U Razak, U Rashid, U Khin Maung Latt and etc.
All the Muslims from Myanmar need a Political platform to struggle to get back our Rights:
(a) Human Rights
(b) Equal Rights
(c) Religious Rights
(d) Political Rights
(e) Citizens’ Rights
(f) Education Rights etc
(g) Economic Rights
(h) Occupation Rights
Why use the word, “All the Muslims from Myanmar”?
Successive Myanmar Military governments and other Non-Muslim citizens usually refused to recognize us as a separate race calling Myanmar Muslims or Bama Muslims or Burmese Muslims. And Muslims in Myanmar are also divided into many groups depending to race, sect and origin. So I strongly believed that we need to compromise and offer a neutral name which could be accepted by all, i.e. “Muslims from Myanmar”, that could even have an extended meaning to be able to include Muslim citizens living in and outside Myanmar.
As there are a lot of Islamic Parties, different Sects, different ideologies, different races and different political affiliations, we, all the Myanmar Muslims need to combine our Political Force.
We are glad to see the cooperation or coordinated activities of Myanmar Islamic organizations during the recent Anti-Muslim activities attacking Islam, Muslim properties and its places of worships. Like this common problem…during the ?DKBA monk’s destruction of Masjids in Karen State and during this year’s multiple attack on Muslims, we get a best example of common complaint letter signed by five Islam organizations’ authorities.
The Chairman, Secretary General and one CEC member of each Islamic party, (Council, Ulama, Tabalige, etc) should just combine with other interested Myanmar Muslims to form a Pro-team Committee, to form the UMBRELLA ORGANIZATION for all the Muslim Organizations in Myanmar and around the world.
Whether they are: Sunni, Shia, Mosque Committee members, Welfare Organizations, Youth movements, Media Organizations, Online groups etc without looking at their Sects but as long as they accept Islam, we just need to admit or accept under the umbrella organization. We urgently need an umbrella mother or father of all Muslim organizations to get the political power we need.
Like “D” Chote (NLD), we need an “I” Chote (Islam) or “M” Chote (Muslim), which could be called:
(a) Assembly or
(b) Congress or
(c) League or
(d) Confederation or
(e) Union or
(f) Alliance or
…to make it easy to cooperate with all other regional Muslim groups in many countries, because it may be much better or easier to combine or affiliate our existing different forces and organizations rather than starting the branches in all the towns, cities, villages and different countries. AND that association could easily become Father/mother main top Myanmar Muslim organization. (Could even know from the name)
This Umbrella Organization’s Aim and Objective (I hope our Muslim lawyers could come up with much better rules and regulations. I hereby just mentioned the rudimentary rough proposal only)
1. The Umbrella organization need to tell all that it is only for peaceful and legal Socio-political actives of all Muslims in Myanmar.
2. The Umbrella organization should avoid religious activities, which is only the personal affairs of the members and the affiliated organizations. The Umbrella organization needs to AGREE to disagree in Intra Islam affairs.
3. We all must accept that the umbrella organization could not act or influence or interfere in any affiliate group’s internal policy or activities but advice coordinate, cooperate as the Head of all of them.
4. But we need to make sure that umbrella organization is not under any one affiliate group’s direct influence but accept the inputs, requests, information etc.
5. The umbrella organization is the top decision body for POLITICAL DECISION and political movement and humanitarian activities only but not for religious activities.
6. It is not responsible for the affiliate organizations’ activities but could suspend or terminate the ties of any affiliated parties.
7. The Umbrella organization could seek information or advice from any group but they should not ORDER the umbrella organization.
8. The Umbrella organization should open the door of communication or a HOT LINE with ALL the Islamic organizations, NLD, Monks (who understand and want peace) and the (present) government of the day, local authorities, police, military, USDP etc. to “REQUEST” some activities during emergencies like the present time.
9. The Umbrella organization need to exchange information, coordinate with International Islamic Organizations like OIC, Muslim NGOs, ASEAN NGOs, Muslim Countries, Muslim Embassies in Myanmar etc.
10. The Umbrella organization should even act as the glue, bond, or coordinator, between the Myanmar Islamic groups which are hostile to each other to work in political arena and on humanitarian grounds.
11. The Umbrella organization must exchange i.e. distribute and gather information ideas, strategies, manpower, funds etc.
12. The Umbrella organization needs to deal together, join the hands to face the non-Muslim and Gov assault. Not to fight back but by peaceful resistance or discussion or distributing non bias information, defense and political pressure.
We urgently need an Umbrella Political organization for all the Muslims from Myanmar. Kindly read about Political Islam and Political Islamic movements around the world.
Islamism from Wikipedia. Edited for clarity or simplicity from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the political Islamic movement. For the religion of Islam, see Islam.
Political Islam or Islamism is a set of ideologies holding that Islam is “as much a political ideology as a religion”.
Some observers suggest Political Islam or Islamism’s tenets are
1. less strict,
2. and can be defined as a form of identity politics or
3. “support for Muslim identity:
b. broader regionalism,
c. revivalism, [and]
d. revitalization of the community”.
Following the Arab Spring at least one source has described Islamism as “increasingly interdependent” with democracy in much of the Arab Muslim world, such that “neither can now survive without the other.”
Many of those described as “Islamists” oppose the use of the term, and claim that their political beliefs and goals are simply an expression of Islamic religious belief.
Central figures of modern Islamism include Sayyid Qutb, Hasan al-Banna, Abul Ala Maududi, Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and Navvab Safavi.
POLITICAL ISLAM or Islamism has been defined as:
1. “the belief that Islam should guide
(a) social and
(b) political as well as
(c) personal life”,
2. “the Islamic ideology that guides society as a whole. 
3. The flexible movement of … everything to everyone:
(a) an alternative social provider to the poor masses;
(b) an angry platform for the disillusioned young;
(c) a loud trumpet-call announcing
(d) `a return to the pure religion`
(e) to those seeking an identity;
(f) a “progressive, moderate religious platform`
(g) for the affluent and liberal.
4. “the organised political trend, owing its modern origin to the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928, that seeks to solve modern political problems by reference to Muslim texts”
5. “the whole body of thought which seeks to invest society with Islam which may be
(a) integrationist, but may also be
(c) reform-minded or
(d) even revolutionary”,
6. “the active assertion and promotion of beliefs, prescriptions, laws or policies that are held to be Islamic in character,”
7. a movement of “Muslims who draw upon
(a) the belief, symbols, and language of Islam
(b) to inspire, shape, and animate political activity;” which may contain
(c) moderate, tolerant, peaceful activists.”
Islamism takes different forms and spans a wide range of strategies and tactics, and thus is not a united movement.
Moderate reformists who accept and work within the democratic process include the Justice and Development Party of Turkey, Tunisian author and reformer Rashid Al-Ghannouchi and Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim.
Following the Arab Spring, scholar Oliver Roy has described Islamism, or political Islam, as
(a) “increasingly interdependent” with democracy in much of the Arab Muslim world, such that
(b) “neither can now survive without the other.”
Islamists need democratic elections to maintain their legitimacy.
At the same times, their popularity is such that no government can call itself democratic that excludes mainstream Islamist groups.
History of usage
1. The term Islamism was coined in eighteenth-century France as a way of referring to Islam. The term Islamism is considered to have first begun to acquire its contemporary connotations in French academia between the late 1970s and late 1980s.
2. The use of the term Islamism was at first “a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize” with new Islamic movements.
3. A 2003 article in Middle East Quarterly states:
(a) In summation, the term Islamism enjoyed its first run, lasting from Voltaire to the First World War, as a synonym for Islam.
(b) Eventually this term yielded to Islam, the Arabic name of the faith, and a word free of either pejorative or comparative associations.
(c) There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam as modern ideology from Islam as a faith.
Relation with Islam
Further information: Political aspects of Islam
The concept Islamism is controversial:
(a) not just because it posits a political role for Islam, but also because
(b) its supporters believe their views merely reflect Islam,
(c) while the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.
Islamists (i.e. Radical Islam/Muslims) have asked the question, “If Islam is a way of life, how can we say that those who want to live by its principles in legal, social, political, economic, and political spheres of life are not Muslims, but Islamists and believe in Islamism, not [just] Islam?”
Similarly, a writer for the International Crisis Group maintains that “the conception of ‘political Islam'” is a creation of Americans to explain the Iranian Islamic Revolution.
In reality, apolitical Islam was an historical fluke of the “short-lived heyday of secular Arab nationalism between 1945 and 1970,” and it is quietist/non-political Islam, not Islamism, that requires explanation.
On the other hand, Muslim-owned and run media (not just Western media) have used the terms “Islamist” to distinguish groups which actively seek to implement Islamic law, from mainstream Muslim groups.
Islamic refers to a religion and culture in existence over a millennium,
Islamist is a political/religious phenomenon linked to the great events of the 20th century.
Islamism or “activist” Islam form two “particular … political traditions” in Islam, according to historian Bernard Lewis,
The arguments in favor of both are based, as are most early Islamic arguments, on the Holy Book and on the actions and sayings of the Prophet.
The quietist tradition obviously rests on the Prophet as sovereign, as judge and statesman.
(But before the Prophet became a head of state, he was a rebel. Before he travelled from Mecca to Medina, where he became sovereign, he was an opponent of the existing order. He led an opposition against the pagan oligarchy of Mecca and at a certain point went into exile and formed what in modern language might be called a “government in exile,” with which finally he was able to return in triumph to his birthplace and establish the Islamic state in Mecca.)
The Prophet as rebel has provided a sort of paradigm of revolution—
(a) opposition and rejection,
(b) withdrawal and departure,
(c) exile and
Time and time again movements of opposition in Islamic history tried to repeat this pattern, a few of them successfully.
—Bernard Lewis, Islamic Revolution
Few observers contest the influence of Islamism. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, political movements based on the liberal ideology of free expression and democratic rule have led the opposition in other parts of the world such as Latin America, Eastern Europe and many parts of Asia; however “the simple fact is that political Islam currently reigns as the most powerful ideological force across the Muslim world today”.
Even some of those who see Islamism as fraught with contradictions believe “the socioeconomic realities that sustained the Islamist wave are still here and are not going to change:
(c) crises in values and identities,
(d) the decay of the educational systems,
(e) the North-South opposition, and
(f) the problem of immigrant integration into the host societies”.
The strength of Islamism draws from the strength of religiosity in general in the Muslim world. Compared to Western societies, “[w]hat is striking about the Islamic world is that … it seems to have been the least penetrated by irreligion”.
Where other peoples may look to the physical or social sciences for answers in areas which their ancestors regarded as best left to scripture, in the Muslim world, religion has become more encompassing, not less, as “in the last few decades, it has been the fundamentalists who have increasingly represented the cutting edge of the culture”.
In Egypt and the rest of the Muslim world “the word secular, a label proudly worn 30 years ago, is shunned” and “used to besmirch” political foes. The small secular opposition parties “cannot compare” with Islamists in terms of “doggedness, courage,” “risk-taking” or “organizational skills”.
In the Middle East and Pakistan, religious discourse dominates societies, the airwaves, and thinking about the world. Radical mosques have proliferated throughout Egypt. Book stores are dominated by works with religious themes … The demand for sharia, the belief that their governments are unfaithful to Islam and that Islam is the answer to all problems, and the certainty that the West has declared war on Islam; these are the themes that dominate public discussion. Islamists may not control parliaments or government palaces, but they have occupied the popular imagination.—
Moderate strains of Islamism have been described as “competing in the democratic public square in places like Turkey and Indonesia. In Morocco, the Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD) supported King Muhammad VI’s “Mudawana”, a “startlingly progressive family law” which grants women the right to a divorce, raises the minimum age for marriage to 18, and, in the event of separation, stipulates equal distribution of property.
Islamists in Egypt and other Muslim countries have been described as “not politically dominant today, but … extremely influential. … They determine how one dresses, what one eats. In these areas, they are incredibly successful. … Even if the Islamists never come to power, they have transformed their countries.” 
Sources of strength
Amongst the various reasons for the global strength of Islamism are:
Resurgence of Islam
Further information: Islamic revival
• The resurgence of Islamic devotion and the attraction to things Islamic can be traced to several events. A tenet of the Quran is that Islam will deliver victory and success. For example 23:1: “Successful indeed are the believers”; Sura 9:14 “Fight them and God will punish them at your hands … God will make you victorious over them”; 22:40: “God will certainly aid those who aid His (cause): for verily God is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might.”
• By the end of World War I, most Muslim states were seen to be dominated by the Christian-leaning Western states. It is argued that either the claims of Islam were false and the Christian or post-Christian West had finally come up with another system that was superior, or Islam had failed through not being true to itself. Thus, a redoubling of faith and devotion by Muslims was called for to reverse this tide.
• The connection between the lack of an Islamic spirit and the lack of victory was underscored by the disastrous defeat of Arab nationalist-led armies fighting under the slogan “Land, Sea and Air” in the 1967 Six Day War, compared to the (perceived) near-victory of the Yom Kippur War six years later. In that war the military’s slogan was “God is Great”.
• Along with the Yom Kippur War came the Arab oil embargo where the (Muslim) Persian Gulf oil-producing states’ dramatic decision to cut back on production and quadruple the price of oil, made the terms oil, Arabs and Islam synonymous – with power – in the world, and especially in the Muslim world’s public imagination. Many Muslims believe as Saudi Prince Saud al Faisal did that the hundreds of billions of dollars in wealth obtained from the Persian Gulf’s huge oil deposits were nothing less than a gift from God to the Islamic faithful.
• As the Islamic revival gained momentum, governments such as Egypt’s, which had previously repressed (and was still continuing to repress) Islamists, joined the bandwagon. They banned alcohol and flooded the airwaves with religious programming, giving the movement even more exposure.
Shelter of the mosque
While dictatorial regimes can preempt opposition nationalist or socialist campaigns by closing down their networks and headquarters, the centre for Islamist political organizing is the mosque. It is exempt from government crackdowns in the Muslim world (and often in the non-Muslim world) by virtue of its sacredness. “It is in the mosque where [Islamists] canvas neighbourhoods in the course of providing social services, spread their political messages and campaign for votes where permitted to participate.”
Islamist movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood, “are well known for providing shelters, educational assistance, free or low cost medical clinics, housing assistance to students from out of town, student advisory groups, facilitation of inexpensive mass marriage ceremonies to avoid prohibitively costly dowry demands, legal assistance, sports facilities, and women’s groups.” All this compares very favourably against incompetent, inefficient, or neglectful governments whose commitment to social justice is limited to rhetoric.
• Clash of Civilizations
• Muslim Brotherhood Influence Operations
1. ^ Esposito, Political Islam: Beyond the Green Menace by John Esposito, vii
2. ^ Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism by DALE C. EIKMEIER From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85-98. Accessed 6 February 2012
3. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p.21
4. ^ a b Roy, Olivier (April 16, 2012). “The New Islamists”. foreignpolicy.com.
5. ^ a b “Understanding Islamism” (PDF). International Crisis Group. Archived 21 September 2010 at WebCite
6. ^ a b Islamic republic by Bernard Lewis
7. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam,
8. ^ “Trevor Stanley, Definition: Islamism, Islamist, Islamiste, Islamicist, Perspectives on World History and Current Events, July 2005. URL: http://www.pwhce.org/islamism.html Downloaded: 11 June 2007”. Pwhce.org. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
9. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p.120
10. ^ a b c d e f g Coming to Terms, Fundamentalists or Islamists? Martin Kramer originally in Middle East Quarterly (Spring 2003), pp. 65-77.
11. ^ Berman, S, “Islamism, Revolution, and Civil Society, Perspectives on Politics”, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2003, American Political Science Association, p. 258
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13. ^ Osman, Tarek, Egypt on the brink, 2010, p.111
14. ^ Burgat, F, “Islamic Movement”, pp. 39-41, 67-71, 309
15. ^ a b “Fred Halliday, from “The Left and the Jihad”, Open Democracy 7 September 2006″. Opendemocracy.net. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
16. ^ Speech by Robert H. Pelletreau, Jr., Council on Foreign Relations, May 8, 1996.
17. ^ Ayatollah Fadlallah, in interview by Monday Morning (Beirut), Aug. 10, 1992. “Fadlallah later revised his position” saying he preferred the phrase ‘Islamist movement,’ to Islamic ‘fundamentalism.’ Quoted in Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists? by Martin Kramer
18. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam, (1994), p.24
19. ^ Fuller, The Future of Political Islam, (2003), p.194-5
20. ^ Roy, Olivier, The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East, Columbia University Press, (2008), p.92-3
21. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
22. ^ “Faithworld blogpost”. Blog.reuters.com. 18 October 2011.
23. ^ Abid Ullah Jan, Wikipedia: Good Intentions, Horrible Consequences, Al-Jazeerah Op-Ed, 27 February 2006. (archive.org accessed 2007-10-24).
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27. ^ Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, (2004), p.562
28. ^ Fuller, The Future of Political Islam, (2003), p. 67
29. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam (1994) p. 27
30. ^ a b Cook, Michael, The Koran: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, (2000)
31. ^ Murphy, Caryle, Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Scribner, (c2002), p.161
32. ^ Murphy, Caryle, Passion for Islam, (c2002), p.160
33. ^ The Age of Sacred Terror by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, Random House, 2002, p.172-3
34. ^ Farr, Thomas F. “Islam’s Way to Freedom”, First Things, November 2008, p. 24–28 (p.26)
35. ^ a b c The Islamism Debate: God’s Counterculture Sonja Zekri, © Süddeutsche Zeitung / Qantara.de 2008 Translated from the German by Phyllis Anderson
36. ^ “From the article on westernization in Oxford Islamic Studies Online”. Oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
37. ^ Fuller, E., The Future of Political Islam, (2003), p.15
38. ^ Pipes, Daniel, In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power, Basic Books, (1983), p.173
39. ^ Islam and the Myth of Confrontation, Fred Halliday; (2003) p.108
40. ^ Lewis, Bernard, Islam and the West Oxford University Press, p.13, (1993)
41. ^ Hassan Hanafi, Islamist philosophy professor at Cairo University quoted in Passion for Islam by Caryle Murphy, p.172
42. ^ Haddad/Esposito pg.xvi
43. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, Harvard University Press, (2002), p.218
44. ^ a b Terror and Liberalism by Paul Berman, W.W. Norton and Company, 2003, p.101
45. ^ Peter Bergen, Alec Reynolds (November/December 2005). “Blowback Revisited”. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
46. ^ Higgins, Andrew (24 January 2009). “How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas”. Online.wsj.com.
47. ^ “How Israel and the United States Helped to Bolster Hamas”. Democracynow.org. 26 January 2006.
48. ^ Jihad: the trail of political Islam By Gilles Kepel, p.83
49. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Muslim Extremism in Egypt, chapter 5, “Vanguard of the Umma”
50. ^ “Al-Mumenoon (The Believers)”. Usc.edu. Retrieved 2012-04-21.[dead link]
51. ^ “Al-Tawba (Repentance, Dispensation)”. Usc.edu. Retrieved 2012-04-21.[dead link]
52. ^ “Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)”. Usc.edu. Retrieved 2012-04-21.[dead link]
53. ^ An example of Islamic belief in victory is: “If you understand the true character of a Muslim, you will be convinced that he cannot live in humiliation, abasement or subjugation. He is bound to prevail and no power on earth can overwhelm him.” (Towards Understanding Islam by Abul A’la Mawdudi, p.26)
54. ^ ‘Islam is a martial civilization. If you succeed, that means God is on your side.’ from: Lippman, Thomas W., Understanding Islam, New American Library, (1982), p.50
55. ^ Edward Mortimer in Faith and Power: The Politics of Islam, in Wright, Sacred Rage, Simon and Schuster, (1985), pp.64-66)
56. ^ Wright, Sacred Rage, p.64-6
57. ^ Wright, Sacred Rage, p.66 from Pipes, Daniel, In the Path of God, Basic Books, (1983), (p.285)
58. ^ from interview by Robin Wright of UK Foreign Secretary (at the time) Lord Carrington in November 1981, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam by Robin Wright, Simon and Schuster, (1985), p.67
59. ^ Murphy, Passion for Islam, (2002), p.36
60. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: on the Trail of Political Islam, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, (2002), pp.69-75
61. ^ Dawood al-Shirian, ‘What Is Saudi Arabia Going to Do?’ Al-Hayat, May 19, 2003
62. ^ Abou al Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists, HarperSanFrancisco, 2005, pp.48-64
63. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: on the Trail of Political Islam, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, (2002), p.72
64. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.155
65. ^ (Murphy, Caryle, Passion for Islam, (2002) p.32
66. ^ Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology[dead link]
67. ^ “An interview with Minister Mentor of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew”. Accessmylibrary.com. 2004-09-24. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
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71. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam, p.155
72. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam, p.149
73. ^ using statistics from mid-1990s, Commentary, “Defeating the Oil Weapon,” September 2002
74. ^ Thought, Enlightened (2008-04-23). “What went wrong in the Muslim World?”. Muslimdecline.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
75. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p.68
76. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Muslim extremism in Egypt: the prophet and Pharaoh, Berkeley: University of California Press, (c2003), p.218
77. ^ Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, (2003), p.22
78. ^ Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, (2003), p.23
79. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), pp.33-4
80. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p.28
81. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), pp.70-71
82. ^ Mortimer, Faith and Power, (1982) p.58. Quoting Aziz Ahmad, Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment, Oxford University Press, (1964), p.189
83. ^ A Fury For God: the Islamist Attack on America by Malise Ruthven, 2002, p.135. source: Muhammad ‘Umar Memon, Ibn Taymiyya’s Struggle against Popular Religion, with an annotated translation of Kitab Iqitada … (the Hague, 1976), pp.78, 210
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85. ^ Mortimer, Faith and Power, (1982), p.69
86. ^ Islam and the Muslim World, (2004) p.374
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88. ^ “ottoman empire: debt”. Answers.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
89. ^ Mortimer, Edward, Faith and Power, (1982), p.93, 237-240, 249
90. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, 2004, v.2, p.609
91. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glasse, Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, p.19
92. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, OUP, 2003, p.275
93. ^ Historical Dictionary of Islam by Ludwig W. Wadamed, Scarecrow Press, 2001, p.233
94. ^ see discussion section
95. ^ http://www.islamic-considerations.blogspot.com
96. ^ Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, p.46
97. ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam (1994), p.33
98. ^ a b “Maulana Maududi’s Two-Nation Theory”. Witness-pioneer.org. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
99. ^ Mawdudi trained with two Deobandi ulama at the Fatihpuri mosque’s seminary in Delhi and received his certificates to teach religious sciences (ijazahs) in 1926. Bonney, R, “Jihad: From Qur’an to Bin Laden”, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2004, p. 201
100. ^ Bonney, R, “Jihad: From Qur’an to Bin Laden”, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2004, p. 201
101. ^ “A. Maududi’s ‘Towards Understanding Islam'”. Web.archive.org. 2009-10-26. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
102. ^ Abu al-A’la al-Mawdudi, “Political Theory of Islam,” in Khurshid Ahmad, ed., Islam: Its Meaning and Message (London: Islamic Council of Europe, 1976), pp.159-161.
103. ^ Abu al-A’la al-Mawdudi, Islamic Way of Life (Delhi: Markazi Maktaba Islami, 1967), p.40
104. ^ Esposito and Piscatory, “Democratization and Islam,” pp.436-437, 440
105. ^ Esposito, The Islamic Threat, pp.125-126; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy, pp.23-26.
106. ^ he was the author of the book S. Abul A’la Maududi, The Process of Islamic Revolution (Lahore, 1980)
107. ^ Maududi on social justice: “a man who owns a car can drive it; and those who do not own one should walk; and those who are crippled cannot walk but can hop along” (Nizam al-Hayat fi al-Islam, 1st ed., n.d. (Bayrut: Musassast al-Risalah, 1983), p.54) See also Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: the Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb by Ahmad S. Moussalli American University of Beirut, (1992)
108. ^ The Message of the Teachings – Hasan al-Banna
109. ^ “Egypt, A Timeline of Recent Events”. Gemsofislamism.tripod.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
110. ^ “The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood,” [dead link] Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine
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112. ^ Islamists Win 70% of Seats in the Egyptian Parliament The New York Times.
113. ^ Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, The Mother Mosque Foundation, (1981), p.9
114. ^ Fawaz A. Gerges, The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global (Bronxville, N.Y.: Sarah Lawrence College) ISBN 978-0-521-79140-3 prologue
115. ^ “How Did Sayyid Qutb Influence Osama bin Laden?”. Gemsofislamism.tripod.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
116. ^ The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2007
117. ^ Mayer, p.110
118. ^ “The Islamic Resurgence: Prospects and Implications” by Kemal A. Faruki, from Voices of Resurgent Islam, ed. by John L. Esposito, OUP, (1983), p.283
119. ^ a b Khomeini (1981), p.54
120. ^ Ranstorp, Hizb’allah in Lebanon, (1997) pp.103, 126
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• The War for Muslim Minds by Gilles Kepel
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• Esposito, John L. (2003). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-516886-0.
• Fethullah Gulen’s Thoughts on State, Democracy, Politics, Terrorism
• Paul Berman: Terror And Liberalism W. W. Norton & Company, New York 2003
• Robert Dreyfuss: Devil’s Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Henry Holt/Metropolitan Books, November 2005
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Look up islamism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Islamism
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• Islamist.Com Documenting the rise of Islam and Islamists on the world stage. Lots of links on Islamist political prisoners
• Islamism, fascism and terrorism (Part 1)
• Qantara.de-Dossier: Islamism
• (English) Asabiyya: Re-Interpreting Value Change in Globalized Societies
• (English) Why Europe has to offer a better deal towards its Muslim communities. A quantitative analysis of open international data